List of bend stiffness reduction and stress intensification factors (Output Table)

Data description/Result options:

FROM:

Identification of first node of a bend region with constant factors 1

TO:

Identification of last node of a bend region with constant factors 1

(In general FROM and TO will be the identifications of the first and last node of a bend.)

1 In case no identification is available the actual node number will be reported.

RADIUS:

Bend radius at the region

(In case of a mitre bend this radius is the equivalent bend radius on which the calculations are based.)

DOUT:

Outer pipe diameter at the region

WALL:

Wall thickness of the pipe at the region

(Nominal value in NEN3650, BELGIAN LAW and ASME B31.8 options, nominal value minus corrosion allowance in GENERAL option.)

PRESS:

Internal pressure at the region

(All above geometric and loading data are constants over the region)

KLG:

Initial horizontal soil stiffness

(Only applied and reported if Soil Ring-Stiffening option is applied. KLG = KLH or (KLS+KLT)/2 whichever has the lowest value, without application of uncertainty factors.)

Bend stiffness multiplication factor

(K= Bending stiffness BEND element/Bending stiffness PIPE element. K is the initial value at start of the iteration process. If Soil Ring-Stiffening option is applied, the value of K is influenced by the soil stiffness KLG.)

SIX:

Maximum stress intensification factor in axial direction

(Maximum multiplication factor for longitudinal bending stresses.)

SIF:

Maximum stress intensification factor in circumferential direction

(Maximum multiplication factor for circumferential bending stresses)

L1:

Tangent length of a mitre bend

(As defined in the picture below)

R/r:

Radius ratio

(The 'R' is the mitre kink radius, not the geometric radius)

Calculation of L1 and R/r

The number of rows is the number of bends in the pipeline (or more if one or more parameters are not constant in a bend).

H500571, last changed: 2009-07-28

See also: