List of maximum radial deformations of pipe wall over the circumference of the cross-section (Output Table)

Data description/Result options:

ELEM:

Number of element where deformation calculations have been performed at mid cross-section

WGROUND-M:

Maximum radial deformation of pipe wall due to lateral soil reactions

WBEND-M:

Maximum radial deformation of pipe wall due to ovalisation of bend caused by bending moment

(Undefined if ELEM is not a bend element.)

W+WD/D-M:

Maximum change of diameter (in %) due to loads on cross-section

(The outer diameter is used.)

W-TOTAL-M:

Maximum total radial deformation of pipe wall due to all loads on cross-section

(Not necessarily the sum of WGROUND-M and WBEND-M, for the maximum values of these deformations may not occur at the same point of the cross-section.)

R-IND:

Unit deformation indicator

(See below for more information.)

RG/KLG-M:

Elastic impression of the soil at 50 % of 'horizontal' bearing capacity ¹

(RG is 50 % of RH or (RVS+RVT)/2 whichever has the lowest value,

KLG is KLH or (KLS+KLT)/2 whichever has the lowest value,

so -M means 'Minimum' in stead of 'Maximum' here.

KLG-M:

'horizontal' bedding constant (soil stiffness) ¹

(KLG = KLH or (KLS+KLT)/2 as long as W-TOTAL is less than or equal to RG/KLG. If W-TOTAL > RG/KLG, KLG decreases. KLG is a bilinear soil spring.)

AX_BUCKL-M:

Maximum axial buckling strain as a percentage of the critical one

EXT_PRESS-M:

Maximum percentage of critical strain due to external pressure

¹ These quantities are reported only if the Soil Ring-Stiffening Option is Applied. The bilinear soil spring KLG is attached to those points of the cross-section which move to the outside due to the ovalisation. The average soil parameters are taken, so without uncertainty factors. The maximum soil resistance (RG) taken into account is 50 % of the lowest bearing capacity. If RVT = 0, no horizontal soil support springs will be applied.

Description of unit diametrical deformation classes

The unit deformation indicator R-IND refers to the relation: maximum diametrical deformation / outer pipe diameter (W+WD/D-M) and provides a quick overview on the occurring deformation class:

blank: |
maximum diametrical deformation < 6% of outer pipe diameter |

*: |
maximum diametrical deformation ≥ 6% and < 9% of outer pipe diameter |

**: |
maximum diametrical deformation ≥ 9% and < 12% of outer pipe diameter |

***: |
maximum diametrical deformation ≥ 12% and < 15% of outer pipe diameter |

EXCESS: |
maximum diametrical deformation ≥ 15% of outer pipe diameter |

H630541, last changed: 2009-07-20

See also: